A question being asked and has been asked for a long time across the nation is whether improper systemic partiality exists with respect to race and gender and what should be done about it.
The same question should be asked with respect to local conditions within Texarkana USA.
This article deals with systemic partiality assessment primarily with respect to poverty and criminal justice. A number of articles on this site identify a number of disparities (e.g., socio-economic, education, law enforcement) within and across races and genders. Such disparities of course exist for a variety of reasons. Some of those reasons are a function of the policies and attitudes of government, businesses, and various other community and societal elements. Yet some are a function of improper individual, family, culture, and environmental attitudes and actions/tendencies.
The challenge is to discover negative causes and rid oneself, one’s family, one’s culture, one’s environment and one’s government and society in general of such negative causes. Certainly, we ought to at least give heightened attention to significantly reducing such negativity!
Solutions should be devised that reduce/eliminate improper unreasonable disparities/inequities for all people regardless of race or gender or other characteristics.
The purpose of this report is not to present the cause(s) or solution(s) to the matters at hand but rather to present the data that hopefully would provoke the compassionate love and good works to at least reduce such disparity/negativity.
First let us be mindful that statistics are not meant to be exact. Statistics provide us with an idea of what is probably going on. Statistics let us know what we should celebrate but statistics also lets us know what needs strong attention.
This report’s goal is to present the data available that sufficiently captures the state of the Texarkana USA with respect to the statistical areas covered. The best known sources of such data are the Census Bureau and FBI. Ideally, the data would be timely made available on local government entities websites where there should be greater assurance of the accuracy of the data. That is the goal. Therefore, if anyone knows of local sources for timely detailed data for the Texarkana USA, please let me know.
This report provides data from the Census Bureau and the FBI National Incident Based Reported System (NIBRS). NIBRS is a national database that local law enforcement agencies all over the country submit data through the states to the FBI. However, it is not mandatory and some local law enforcement agencies do not submit the data yet. As the years go by more and more of them are submitting the data. The principle as to the nature and purpose of statistics apply to the NIBRS data as well.
The presented Census Bureau Data is taken from the 2020 American Community Survey (ACS) S1701 Table Data obtained from api.census.gov in November 2022. I use the S1701 Table because it contains all the counts and percentages and other data that sufficiently captures the data relationships/ratios of interest to me. Again, the idea is that this information at the necessary level of demographic detail be timely and accurately published at the local level as well as the state and federal level.
Note that figures for person identifying as two or more races or who did not specify a race are not included in the below figures. However, totals that do not specify race, ethnicity or gender includes all races, ethnicities, and genders, including unknown races and two or more races; an example is Total Population. Also, one should be mindful that census data like all statistics are an approximation. Also, different census datasets will vary in the numbers given as the collection may use different methods and be taken at different times of the year. Therefore, Census Quick Facts for 2020 will show different total population data than the ACS S1701 table although the difference will not be statistically significant for purposes of this report.
The presented NIBRS data is taken from the 2020 and 2021 data available on the FBI Crime Data Explorer (CDE) website at the link given in the references section of this report. Note that Texarkana, Arkansas began submitting NIBRS data years before Texarkana, Texas. Texarkana, Texas began in 2021 although prior to that they may have been submitting data under the old Uniformed Crime Reporting (UCR) system. Therefor 2020 NIBRS data is not available for Texarkana, Texas.
The FBI provides a report of crimes and arrests on its CDE website. FBI notes the numbers of arrests do not necessarily represent the number of separate distinct persons arrested but rather the number of arrests made. Indeed, the same person may be arrested multiple times during the year. Also, the same person may be arrested for multiple crimes during a given year which means they will be in more than one category. So adding the numbers together gives the total arrests but not the total number of distinct persons. This is also true of the NIBRS data above. So contrasting Census data to NIBRS data should take that into account. In other words, the disparity is in the number of arrests not necessarily in the number of persons.
For Texarkana, Arkansas (2020 unless otherwise noted):
- Total Population: 28,491
- Female Population: 15,317
- Male Population: 13,174
- White Population: 16, 678
- Black Population: 10, 082
- Hispanic/Latino Population: 1,302
- American Indians & Alaskan Natives Population: 501
- Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islanders Population: 42
- Asian Population: 21
- Female Population Rate: 53.76%
- Male Population Rate: 46.24%
- White Population Rate: 58.54%
- Black Population Rate: 35.39%
- Hispanic/Latino Population Rate: 4.57%
- American Indians & Native Alaskan Native Population Rate: 1.76
- Native Hawaiians & Other Pacific Islanders Population Rate: .15%
- Asian Population Rate: .07
- Overall Poverty Rate: 21%
- Female Poverty Rate: 23.40%
- Male Poverty Rate: 18.10%
- White Poverty Rate: 14.60%
- Black Poverty Rate: 29.70%
- Hispanic/Latino Poverty Rate: 27.20%
- American Indian and Alaskans Poverty Rate: 25.70%
- Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islanders Poverty Rate: 71.40%
- Asian Poverty Rate: 0%
- ****Below is NIBRS Data for 2020****
- NIBRS Total Arrests: 1079
- NIBRS Arrests (Whites): 533
- NIBRS Arrests (Blacks): 544
- NIBRS Arrests (Hispanics/Latinos): 21
- NIBRS Arrests Rate (Whites): 49.4%
- NIBRS Arrests Rate (Blacks): 50.42%
- NIBRS Arrests Rate (Hispanics/Latinos):1.95
- ****Below is NIBRS Data for 2021****
- NIBRS Total Arrests: 1,183
- NIBRS Arrests (Whites): 570
- NIBRS Arrests (Blacks): 613
- NIBRS Arrests (Hispanics/Latinos): 21
- NIBRS Arrests Rate (Whites): 48.02%
- NIBRS Arrests Rate (Blacks): 51.64%
- NIBRS Arrests Rate (Hispanics/Latinos):1.77
For Texarkana, Texas (2020 unless otherwise noted):
- Total Population: 35,127
- White Population: 18,112
- Black Population: 14,151
- Hispanic/Latino Population: 2,630
- American Indians & Alaskan Natives Population: 119
- Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islanders Population: 8
- Asian Population: 814
- Female Population: 18,822
- Male Population: 16,305
- White Population Rate: 51.56%
- Black Population Rate: 40.29%
- Hispanic Population Rate: 7.49%
- American Indians & Native Alaskan Native Population Rate: .34%
- Native Hawaiians & Other Pacific Islanders Population Rate: .02%
- Asian Population Rate: .2.32%
- Female Population Rate: 53.58%
- Male Population Rate: 46.42%
- Overall Poverty Rate: 21.90%
- White Poverty Rate: 14.30%
- Black Poverty Rate: 33.30%
- Hispanic/Latino Poverty Rate: 16.20%
- American Indian and Alaskans Poverty Rate: 0%
- Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islanders Poverty Rate: 0%
- Asian Poverty Rate: 3.30%
- Female Poverty Rate: 23.10%
- Male Poverty Rate: 20.60%
- NIBRS Data for 2020 Not Available for Texarkana TX
- ****Below is NIBRS Data for 2021****
- NIBRS Total Arrests: 1,724
- NIBRS Arrests (Whites): 715
- NIBRS Arrests (Blacks): 1,006
- NIBRS Arrests (Hispanic/Latino): 80
- NIBRS Arrests Rate (Whites): 41.47%
- NIBRS Arrests Rate (Blacks): 58.35%
- NIBRS Arrests Rate (Hispanic/Latino): 4.64%
Certainly, I am concerned with and hope to contribute to resolution of the poverty gaps between whites and blacks. Yet, I must also be concerned with improving the lives of the impoverished of all races. Godly love and human impartiality demand I do so. The same goes for other relative large scale gaps such as the criminality gaps.
Do not these figures produce at least a perception problem as seen from the perspective of the various races/ethnicities?
One might make the mistake of concluding that most blacks and most whites are doing well given that a significant number of whites and blacks and others are above the government specified poverty level. The problem with that conclusion is that the government poverty threshold is minimal at best and does not reflect a desired and deserving level of quality life for most.
The poverty threshold is largely a getting by amount. Those at lower levels above the threshold may not be able to for example sufficiently invest in their children’s future like those further up the chain. So then an inequality or disparity begins to emerge not only with respect to poverty but also with respect to capacity above poverty. Poverty threshold is discussed in more detailed at the link given in the reference on poverty data.
Note that Hispanic/Latino is not a race but is classified as an ethnicity for they consist of those who classify as white, black, and other.
These statistics show that there is a large gap between blacks and white such that blacks relative to whites are not doing very well proportionately. This is also true of other races/ethnicities; however, given the large Black population relative to the others, this large gap is of more concern to me regarding the Black population though of concern regarding all.
Focused efforts to discover and resolve the real causes and short-term/long-term effect of poverty disparity would implement solution elements available to all racial groups and therefore reduce the poverty rate for all as the goal is improved quality of life for all regardless of race and gender, etc.
The related issue of the wealth gap is also of concern.
A key question is how much does the poverty gap contribute to actual criminal activity and the criminalization gap?
Another key question is to what extent does hopelessness contribute to the poverty, criminal activity, and criminalization gap factors and what is the basis for any such hopelessness?
Another key question is what responsibility does the church, government, and businesses have to intensely and effectively address such matters?
A final key question is are they worth you caring more about?
Finally, please understand that the fundamental purpose of this report is to heighten awareness and encourage discussion and action so as to properly and timely address the issues identified so as to better the lives of the citizens of Texarkana USA.
Also, any observed need for clarification, correction, or completeness would be greatly appreciated as I do this by myself as time permits.
NIBRS Participation Rates and Federal Crime Data Quality
Comparing ACS Data With Census 2020
FBI Crime Data Explorer National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) Tables Under Section Entitled Crime Incident-Based Data by State
FBI Crime Data Explorer Arrests
Census Data Retrieval API for Developers
Texarkana USA Census Quick Facts as of November 21, 2022
Texarkana, Texas Community Profile as of July 2018 from Texarkana Texas Website
Please see other articles on the site for more information, especially with respect to the K12 education, law enforcement, and poverty disparities.